WHO IS A CANDIDATE FOR SPERM DONATION?
Sperm Donation is necessary for males who have zero sperm count or have poor sperm morphology that prevents them from producing viable sperm.
Males from a young age, who have had the mumps, or illnesses involving very high temperatures, can lead to many different problemsin their fertility. New born males who are born with ascended testicles are in need of an operation as the testicles develop in the abdomen during pregnancy, they then drop down into the scrotum. Sometimes part of the fetal structure fails to detach from the abdomen, resulting in an upward pull on the testicle. This then requires surgery in order to return the testicle.
Cancer patients who have undergone chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery on the testicles may be only faced with the option of Sperm Donation being the only treatment available to them. Anabolic medication such as steroids can also lead to the deterioration of sperm as this can lead to the tissue in the testicles vulnerable.
There is unfortunately no treatment to improve sperm quality or quantity. All that patients can do is seek the help in the form of donated Sperm.
Before deciding however whether Sperm donation is the only option, there are techniques to try to gain better quality of sperm.
Masturbation is the first option when obtaining a viable sperm sample, if the sperm sample provided shows no sperm or low motility sperm then the guidance of anUrologist, which can perform a prostate massage in order for a sample to be collected and checked under a microscope for viable cells. If this is not successful then surgery is necessary, the different techniques available are TESE, micro TESE, TESA, MESA and PESA. We have applied these techniques within our clinic and have seen success in obtaining viable sperm samples.
Studies performed on mice have shown that stem cells can be converted to sperm, this of course undergoing research that has not been completed as yet.
HOW IS TREATMENTAPPLIED?
When couples under Sperm donation treatment, they are first provided with the donor sperm details. These involve the blood tests carried out and the risks involved with treatment. Before beginning treatment couples are obliged to sign that they are both consenting to treatment and that they are happy with the information provided.
In the first instance, couples are given information about sperm donation and the donor sperm. Details of the donor sperm, this involves the screening results and the quality of the sperm is discussed. Before the process begins, couples must accept the term and conditions as well as sign a consent formand then prepared for treatment.
The two treatments available is standard IVF or Intrauterine Insemination (IUI).
1. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) with donated Sperm involves a laboratory procedure to separate fast moving sperm from more sluggish or non-moving sperm and is then inseminated into the women during once ovulation begins. IUI carries a success of 20%.
2. IVF is more detailed in the female is prepared via hormone stimulation to increase the number of eggs. Once the eggs are ready and collected ICSI is then carried out with the donor sperm and embryos are prepared to be transferred.
When sperm donation was introduced to the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, our collaboration with Cryos International Sperm bank in Denmark began. Cryos are an accredited sperm bank that provides not only a wide choice of sperm and work to European standards.
Sperm banks are not sanctioned within the TRNC, so only accredited companies such as Cryos that are recognised by the Government can be used.
TESTS CARRIED OUT ON SPERM DONORS
Sperm donor candidates are screened for genetic diseases and detailed tests for the screening of sexual transmitted diseases. Also carried out are psychological tests, family characteristics and traits are also recorded, once these are successfully passed only then can the candidate become a sperm donor.
TESTS DONORS UNDERGO
- Medical history of family
- Psychological Profiling
- HIV risk screening and Drug use
- Hepatitis B and C
- CMV Cytomegalovirus
- Cystic Fibrosis
- Chromosome Test
Once these testsare performed and the necessary criterion is met, a sperm sample is taken from the donor, washed and separated into vials. The sample is then frozen; the donors are then called back after 6 months and undergo the same blood tests. If the testing confirms again that all is clear, the sperm bank can then sell the sperm samples. Cryos have a particular criterion with their sperm donors producing good quality sperm, but a successful pregnancy is also dependant on the female also. If the female is also a good candidate with a positive response to treatment then the chances of successful pregnancy is 60%.