What are the most common causes of Infertility?Charlotte
According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), infertility is a social disease. Based on the estimate data, on average every tenth couple in the world has problems with conceiving a child.
With regular sexual intercourses, 84% women get pregnant in the first year, and 92% in total after 2 years. At present, a couple’s infertility is defined as the couple’s inability to conceive after 12 months of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse.
Improper Body Mass
Both underweight and obesity may influence the problems with getting pregnant. The most popular method of determining the proper body mass is the calculation of BMI based on body weight in relation to height of a given person. It is assumed that the permissible BMI value ranges between 18.5 and 24.5. Higher indices indicate overweight or obesity and lower ones indicate too small body mass. In both cases, improper body mass correlates with difficulties with conceiving a child. It is worth taking care of the health condition and proper body mass already at the stage of planning a pregnancy. Consultation with a dietician or paying more attention to nutritional choices may be advisable. Sometimes the situation requires a visit to a specialist who will verify whether the improper body mass is not related to other diseases, e.g. thyroid dysfunction.
Infections within urinary and reproductive organs
In the case of bleeding / spotting which occurs irregularly or between periods, a specialist in gynaecology should be consulted. Typically the doctor will recommend a panel of tests and determining the levels of hormones participating in the regulation of the menstrual cycle in order to diagnose the cause of the problem. The gynaecologist will also perform an ultrasonography and suggest the path of proceeding optimal for the patient’s medical situation.
Endometriosis is a hormonal and immune condition occurring in girls and women in reproductive age. It is associated with the growth of the mucosal tissue of the uterus (endometrium) and its presence within the abdominal cavity. The endometrial cells produce mediators (chemical substances), which to significant extent affect negatively the process of ovulation, fertilisation and, later on, embryo implantation in the uterine cavity.
The cause of the problem is diagnosed on the basis of performed laboratory tests, examination of the bottom of the uterus and/or laparoscopy. When endometriosis is diagnosed, the therapy increasing the patient’s fertility is selected by the doctor – depending on the stage of the disease’s development and its severity.
Sometimes – where the course of the disease is mild or mild to moderate – the treatment consists in limiting the symptoms of the disease; in more problematic cases it may, however, require in vitro fertilisation.
Consequences of previous surgeries
The surgical treatments to which the patient was subjected, especially within the abdominal cavity, may lead to adhesions which cause tubal occlusion, a physical obstacle for a spermatozoon joining an oocyte.The examination allowing the diagnosis is fallopian tube patency evaluation by laparoscopy or ultrasound examination with a contrast agent administered to the reproductive tract. If serious abnormalities are confirmed, the doctor may suggest in vitro fertilization.
Hyperprolactinaemia, the presence of abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood, also can cause problems with conceiving a child. Prolactin is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland, and its physiological function is the stimulation of mammary glands during pregnancy and lactation. Its abnormally increased level disrupts the proper functioning of the hormones taking part in the menstrual cycle. The symptoms of hyperprolactinaemia may include irregular menstruation, spotting, abdominal pain, dizziness or visual disturbance.Hyperprolactinaemia is diagnosed on the basis of tests determining the blood prolactin levels and in some cases on the results of supplementary MR imaging of the head and ophthalmic examination.
Immune system disorders
In the case of certain couples the woman’s body produces antibodies to her partner’s spermatozoa which damage and destroy them. Typically such situation is defined as the “hostile cervical mucus syndrome”. By performing the test after an intercourse in the Fertility Clinic, partners may check whether they will have problems causes by such situation. The immune system disorders may also be the cause of miscarriages; however in such cases the detailed diagnostics is necessary.